Photo of Bruce Baker

Bruce Baker, PhD

NOAA Air Resources Laboratory
Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Office: (865) 220-1728

Research Interests

My current interests are developing climate observing systems, understanding the impact of the carbon reservoirs in the arctic and how that will affect climate change due to the melting permafrost and validation of land surface temperatures from satellites


College of Engineering, University of Michigan, MI

PhD., Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, 1983

College of Engineering, University of Michigan

M.S. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, 1980

College of Engineering, University of Michigan

B.S. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, 1978

Professional Experience

April 2009 – Present

Research Meteorologist and Climate Information Specialist
National Climatic Data Center

August 1991 – present

Chief Scientist for the Climate Reference Network
January 1999 – April 2009

Adjunct Professor University of North Carolina at Asheville
January 1995 – June 1995

Research Meteorologist – NOAA
August 1986 – August 1991

Adjunct Professor North Carolina State University
September 1990

Instructor – University of Michigan
January 1984- May 1984

Post Doctoral Fellow – University of Michigan
September 1983 – December 1983

Links herein are to publications outside the .gov domain and open in separate pages.

Featured Publications

Kochendorfer, J., Nitu, R., Wolff, M., Mekis, E., Rasmussen, R., Baker, B., Earle, M. E., Reverdin, A., Wong, K., Smith, C. D., Yang, D., Roulet, Y.-A., Buisan, S., Laine, T., Lee, G., Aceituno, J. L. C., Alastrué, J., Isaksen, K., Meyers, T., Brækkan, R., Landolt, S., Jachcik, A., and Poikonen, A.: Analysis of single-Alter-shielded and unshielded measurements of mixed and solid precipitation from WMO-SPICE, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3525-3542,, 2017

Sayres, D. S., Dobosy, R., Healy, C., Dumas, E., Kochendorfer, J., Munster, J., Wilkerson, J., Baker, B., and Anderson, J. G.: Arctic regional methane fluxes by ecotope as derived using eddy covariance from a low-flying aircraft, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8619-8633,, 2017

Kochendorfer, J., Rasmussen, R., Wolff, M., Baker, B., Hall, M. E., Meyers, T., Landolt, S., Jachcik, A., Isaksen, K., Brækkan, R., and Leeper, R.: The quantification and correction of wind-induced precipitation measurement errors, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1973-1989,, 2017

Buisán, S. T., M. E. Earle, J. L. Collado, J. Kochendorfer, J. Alastrué, M. Wolff, C. D. Smith, and J. I. López-Moreno (2017). Assessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational network, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10, 1079-1091, doi:10.5194/amt-10-1079-2017

Krishnan P., J. Kochendorfer, E.J. Dumas, P.C. Guillevic, C. B. Baker, Tilden P. Meyers, B. Martos (2015) Comparison of in-situ, aircraft, and satellite land surface temperature measurements over a NOAA Climate Reference Network site, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 165, August 2015, Pages 249-264, ISSN 0034-4257,

T.B. Wilson, J. Kochendorfer, T.P. Meyers, M. Heuer, K. Sloop, J. Miller (2014) Leaf litter water content and soil surface CO2 fluxes in a deciduous forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Volumes 192–193, 15 July 2014, Pages 42-50, ISSN 0168-1923.

Ikawa H., I. Faloona, J. Kochendorfer, K.T. Paw U, and W.C. Oechel (2013) Air-sea exchange of CO2 at a Northern California coastal site along the California Current upwelling system. Biogeosciences, 10, 4419-4432, 2013. doi:10.5194/bg-10-4419-2013.

Kochendorfer, J., T.P. Meyers, J. Frank, W. Massman, and M. Heuer (2012) How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. doi:10.1007/s10546-012-9738-1.


Buisán, S. T., Earle, M. E., Collado, J. L., Kochendorfer, J., Alastrué, J., Wolff, M., Smith, C. D., and López-Moreno, J. I.: Assessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational network, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1079-1091, doi:10.5194/amt-10-1079-2017, 2017.

Timothy Wilson, C. Baker, Tilden Meyers, John Kochendorfer, Mark Hall, Jesse Bell, Howard Diamond, Michael Palecki (2016): Site-Specific Soil Properties of the U.S. Climate Reference Network Soil Moisture, Vadose Zone Journal, Vol. 15, Iss. 11, November 2016, doi: 10.2136/vzj2016.05.0047.

Scott L. Graham, John Kochendorfer, Andrew M.S. McMillan, Maurice J. Duncan, M.S. Srinivasan, Gladys Hertzog (2016): Effects of agricultural management on measurements, prediction, and partitioning of evapotranspiration in irrigated grasslands, Agricultural Water Management, Volume 177, November 2016, Pages 340-347, ISSN 0378-3774, doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2016.08.015.

Buisan, S, J.I. Lopez-Moreno, and J. Kochendorfer (2016): Impact of weather type variability on winter precipitation, temperature and annual snowpack in the Spanish Pyrenees. Climate Research, 69, 79-92, 10.3354/cr01391, 2016.

Colli M., R. Rasmussen, J. M. Thériault, L. G. Lanza, C. B Baker, and J. Kochendorfer (2015): An improved trajectory model to evaluate the collection performance of snow gauges. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 54, 1826–1836.

Leeper, R. D. and J. Kochendorfer (2015) Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2291-2300, doi:10.5194/amt-8-2291-2015.

U.S. Climate Reference Network soil moisture and temperature observations (2013). J.E. Bell, M.A. Palecki, B. Baker, W.G. Collins, J.H. Lawrimore, R.D. Leeper, M.E. Hall, John Kochendorfer, T.P. Meyers, T.Wilson, H.J. Diamond. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 14, 977–988. doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-0146.1.

Kochendorfer, J., T.P. Meyers, J. Frank, W. Massman, and M. Heuer (2013) Reply to the comment by Mauder on “How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass”. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. doi: 10.1007/s10546-012-9792-8.

Wilson, T. B., T. P Meyers, J. Kochendorfer, M.C. Anderson, and M. Heuer (2012), The effect of soil surface litter residue on energy and carbon fluxes in a deciduous forest. Agric. and Forest Meteorol. 161:(134-147).

Rasmussen, R., C.B. Baker, J. Kochendorfer., T.P. Meyers, S. Landolt, A. P. Fischer, J. Black, J.M. Thériault, P. Kucera, D. Gochis, C. Smith, R. Nitu, M. Hall, K. Ikeda, and E. Gutmann (2012), How well are we measuring Snow? The NOAA/FAA/NCAR winter precipitation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 93(6):811-829.

Kochendorfer, J., E.G. Castillo, E. Haas. W.C. Oechel, K.T. Paw U (2011), Net Ecosystem Exchange, Evapotranspiration and Canopy Conductance in a Riparian Forest. Agric. and Forest Meteorol. 151(5):544-553.

Kochendorfer, J., K.T. Paw U (2011), Field estimates of scalar advection across a canopy edge. Agric. and Forest Meteorol. 151(5):585-594.

Myles, L., J. Kochendorfer, M. W. Heuer, and T. P. Meyers. (2011), Measurement of Trace Gas Fluxes over an Unfertilized Agricultural Field Using the Flux-gradient Technique, Journal of Environmental Quality. 40:1359–1365. doi:10.2134/jeq2009.0386

Kochendorfer, J., M. E. Hall, T. P. Meyers and C. B. Baker (2009), Climate reference network solar powered site analysis, NOAA Technical Memo OAR ARL-262.

Paw U, K. T., S. Wharton, and J. Kochendorfer, (2004), Evapotranspiration: measuring and modeling. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 664:537-554.

Figure 1 from SPICE article

SPICE testbeds

Figure 1 from Kochendorfer article

Figure 1. from article The quantification and correction of wind-induced precipitation measurement errors.
(a) Site map; (b) Haukeliseter DFIR, single-Alter, and(c) unshielded gauges; (d) Marshall double-Alter and (e) Belfort doubleAlter shielded gauges

Centaur aircraft flying low over Alaska tundra

Centaur aircraft flying low over Alaska tundra