Photo of Howard Diamond

Howard J. Diamond, PhD

– ARL Climate Science Program Manager
– U.S. Climate Program Manager (CRN)
– U.S. National Coordinator for the
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)

NOAA Air Resources Laboratory
Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division
Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (based in Silver Spring, MD)
Office: (301) 427-2475

Research Interests

  • Sustained In-Situ Climate Observing – Nationally and Globally
  • Tropical Cyclone Climatology in the SW Pacific and Globally
  • Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Climatology
  • Relationship of climate phenomena to large-scale atmospheric teleconnections
    including ENSO, Madden-Julian Oscillation, Southern Annular Mode, and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

Why This Research is Important

Climate change has significant effects on all sectors of society. It is not just about rising air temperatures and global warming, but a warming atmosphere has been shown to have tremendous effects on ecosystems, the transmission of disease, human infrastructure, transfer of that heat to the oceans, and economic viability. Therefore, it is of vital importance that science attempt to better understand, as thoroughly as possible, how climate change is impacting what are described as normal conditions, and what the statistically significant deviations or anomalies for various factors are, and how they may or may not be directly related to the more overarching issue of global climate change.

Questions related to this include but are not limited to investigating whether:

  1. Events such as rainstorms, droughts, and heatwaves longer and/or more severe
  2. Impacts from melting land ice affecting not only sea-levels and the salinity of oceans, but is that infusion of freshwater have affects on global circulation patterns that impact weather events (e.g., the well-publicized Polar Vortex from the boreal winter of 2015/16 that had major impacts on North American weather patterns)
  3. Background changes in the state of the environment are affecting the behavior and characteristics of tropical cyclones
  4. and, a warming ocean having impacts on the migration and economic viability of fisheries (e.g., the New England and Canadian lobster industry)

The ability to monitor changes in variables such as sea surface and sub-surface ocean temperature; sea ice extent and thickness; sea-level heights; and the behavior of tropical cyclones, and how these changes may be related to large-scale global phenomena such as ENSO are therefore a critical piece in the overall fabric of climate change research being conducted by literally thousands of climate scientists across the globe.


University of Auckland, New Zealand

PhD., Geography and Environmental Science, 2014

University of Maryland

M.S., Management, 1994

Florida State University

B.S., Biological Sciences, 1981

Professional Experience

Cartographer, National Ocean Service, 1981 to 1986

Program Manager, National Weather Service, 1986 to 1999

Climate Scientist and Program Manager, National Environmental Satellite, Data,
and Information Service, 1999 to 2017

Climate Science Program Manager, Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, 2017 to present

Adjunct Research Associate, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 2014 to present

NOTE: A more up-to-date list of publications is available at
Links herein are to publications outside the .gov domain and open in separate pages.

Featured Publications

Diamond, H.J., and J.A. Renwick, 2014: The Climatological Relationship between Tropical Cyclones and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Southwest Pacific. International Journal of Climatology, doi: 10.1002/joc.4012.

Diamond, H.J., and J.A. Renwick, 2014: The Climatological Relationship between Tropical Cyclones and the Southern Annular Mode in the Southwest Pacific. International Journal of Climatology, doi: 10.1002/joc.4007.


Revell, C., S. Ready, J. Renwick, and H.J. Diamond, 2014: A case study of tropical cyclone Wilma, January 2011, Weather and Climate. In press.

Rennie, J.J., J. H. Lawrimore, B.E. Gleason, P. W. Thorne, C. P. Morice, M. J. Menne, C. N. Williams, W. Gambi de Almeida, J.R. Christy, M. Flannery, M. Ishihara, K. Kamiguchi, A.M.G. Klein-Tank, A. Mhanda, D.H. Lister, V. Razuvaev, M. Renom, M. Rusticucci, J. Tandy, S. J. Worley, V. Venema W. Angel, M. Brunet, B. Dattore, H. Diamond, M.A. Lazzara, F. Le Blancq,
J. Luterbacher, H. Mächel, J. Revadekar, R.S. Vose, X. Yin, 2014. The International Surface Temperature Initiative Global Land Surface Databank: Monthly Temperature Data Version 1 Release Description and Methods.Geoscience Data Journal. doi:10.1002/gdj3.8.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2014: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2013”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95(7) S81-S114.

Kruk, M.C., A. M. Lorrey, G.M. Griffiths, M. Lander, J.J. Marra, H.J. Diamond, and E.J. Gibney, 2014. On the State of the Knowledge of Rainfall Extremes in the Pacific Basin. International Journal of Climatology. doi: 10.1002/joc.3990.

Jones, D.A., D. A. Collins, S. McGree, B. Trewin, E. Skilling, H. Diamond, O. Fa’anunu, D. Hiriasia, S. Hugony, R. Hutchinson, K. Inape, L. Jacklick, P. Malsale, T. Moniz, M. Ngemaes,
A. Porteous, S. Seuseu, L. Tahani, F. Teimitsi, U. Toorua, M. Vaiimene, V. Vuniyayawa, and H. Vavae, 2013: An updated analysis of homogeneous temperature data at Pacific Island stations. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 63, 285–302.

Thorne, P.W., H. Vömel, G. Bodeker, M. Sommer, A. Apituley, F. Berger, S. Bojinski, G. Braathen, B. Calpini, B. Demoz, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema,A. Fassò, M. Fujiwara, T. Gardiner, 2013. GCOS reference upper air network (GRUAN): Steps towards assuring future climate records AIP Conf. Proc. 1552, 1042-1047; doi:

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2013: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2012”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94(8) S79-S110.

Lorrey, A.M., G. Griffiths, N. Fauchereau, H.J. Diamond, P.R. Chappell, and J. Renwick, 2013. An ex-tropical cyclone climatology for Auckland, New Zealand. International Journal of Climatology, doi: 10.1002/joc.3753.

Diamond, H.J., T.R. Karl, M.A. Palecki, C.B. Baker, J.E. Bell, R.D. Leeper, D.R. Easterling,
J.H. Lawrimore, T.P. Meyers, M.R. Helfert, G. Goodge, and P.W. Thorne, 2013: U.S. Climate Reference Network after one decade of operations: status and assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94(4); doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00170.

Diamond, H.J., A.M. Lorrey, and J.A. Renwick. 2013. A Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Linkages to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate, 26(1), 3-25. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00077.1.

Diamond, H.J., 2013. The Global Observing Systems Information Center (GOSIC): A Comprehensive and Evolving Portal for Global Climate Data and Information. Data Science Journal Special Issue of the Proceedings of the 1st WDS Conference in Kyoto 2011. 12, 13-16.

Bell, J.E., M.A. Palecki, W.G. Collins, J.H. Lawrimore, R.D. Leeper, M.E. Hall, J. Kochendorfer, T.P. Meyers, T. Wilson, C.B Baker, H.J. Diamond, 2013: U.S. Climate Reference Network Soil Moisture and Temperature Observations.J. Hydrometeorol, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D- 12-0146.1.

Diamond, H.J., A.M. Lorrey, K.R. Knapp, and D.H. Levinson. 2012. Development of an enhanced tropical cyclone tracks database for the southwest Pacific from 1840-2011.
International Journal of Climatology, 32: 2240–2250. DOI:10.1002/joc.2412.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2012: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2011”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93(7), S93-S125.

Morrissey M. L., H.J. Diamond, M.J. McPhaden, H.P. Freitag, J.S. Greene, 2012. An Investigation of the Consistency of TAO/TRITON Buoy-mounted Capacitance Rain Gauges. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology; 29, 834-845, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11- 00171.1.

Lorrey, A.M., A.D. Giovanni, J.A. Renwick, H.J. Diamond, M. Gaetani, 2012. Reconstructing the South Pacific Convergence Zone position during the pre-satellite era: a La Niña case study. Monthly Weather Review, 140, 3653-3658.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2011: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2010”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92(7), S109-S142.

T.R. Karl, H.J. Diamond, S. Bojinski, J.H. Butler, H. Dolman, W. Haeberli, D.E. Harrison, A. Nyong, S. Rösner, G. Seiz, K. Trenberth, W. Westermeyer and J. Zillman, 2010. Observation Needs for Climate Information, Prediction and Application: Capabilities of Existing and Future Observing Systems. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 1, 192–205.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2010: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2009”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91(7), S79-S106.

Knapp, Kenneth R., Michael C. Kruk, David H. Levinson, Howard J. Diamond, Charles J. Neumann, 2010: The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 363–376. doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2755.1

Levinson, David H., Howard J. Diamond, Kenneth R. Knapp, Michael C. Kruk, Ethan J. Gibney, 2010: Toward a Homogenous Global Tropical Cyclone Best-Track Dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 377–380. doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2930.1

Diamond, H.J., N. Plummer, and K. Walsh, 2010: Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 245–249.

Diamond, H. J., and C. J. Lief, 2009, A Comprehensive Data Portal for Global Climate Information, Eos Trans. AGU, 90(39), doi:10.1029/2009EO390001.

Levinson, D. H., and H. J. Diamond, 2009, Combining Tropical Cyclone Data Sets Worldwide,
Eos Trans. AGU, 90(35), doi:10.1029/2009EO350006.

Seidel, D.J., F.H. Berger, H.J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Sisterson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, 2009: Reference Upper-Air Observations for Climate: Rationale, Progress, and Plans. Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc., 90, 361–369.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2009: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2008”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,
90, S75-S95.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2008: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2007”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,
89, S63-S83.

Lorrey, A.M., H.J. Diamond, J. Renwick, J. Salinger, J. Gergis, and G. Dalu, 2008. A map-based South Pacific rainfall climatology. Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract

Ganachaud, A., G. Brassington, W. Kessler, S. Wijffels, K. Ridgway, W. Cai, N. Holbrook,
P. Sutton, M. Bowen, B. Qiu, A. Timmermann, D. Roemmic, J. Sprintal, H. Diamond,
S. Cravatte, L. Gourdeau, P. Eastwood, T. Aung, 2007: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment Implementation Plan.

Diamond, H.J., Ed., 2007: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2006”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,
88, S45-S61.

Diamond, H.J., D.H. Levinson, Eds., 2006: Tropics [in “State of the Climate in 2005”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, S33-S46.

Image showing differences in El Niño and La Niña

Image showing differences in El Niño and La Niña

To view a short video about these phenomena, see
What are El Niño and La Niña?
on the National Ocean Service page.

Satellite view TC Donna on May 7, 2017

Satellite view TC Donna on May 7, 2017
approximately 1,000 miles east of Australia
(click on image to enlarge)

Google Earth image of area where TC Donna was on May 7, 2017

Google Earth image of area where TC Donna was on May 7, 2017
(click on image to enlarge)